Findings on happiness in Laxer (1964): study US 1960

Author(s)Laxer, R.M.
TitleRelation of Real Self-Rating to Mood and Blame and Their Interaction in Depression.
SourceJournal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, Vol. 28, 538 - 546
PublicPsychiatric patients, USA, 196?
 Non-psychotic patients, aged 55 or less
 Year of data collection not reported
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Patients in 5 mental hospitals. All recently admissed (3 weeks or less). Non-psychotic, so in fairly good contact woth reality.
Respondents N =72
 Fluent in English, age under 55, ability to complete the practice page of the semantic differential.
Non Response3
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: "......overall mood of the past day ......" ( full question not reported.) 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue" 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue" 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale'
Author's labelPatients mood level
Page in publication540-542
RemarksVery low mood (4 or less): 33%, low mood (5) 26%, medium mood (6): 21%, high mood (7 or more): 37%
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
blame assignmentshow  Blaming
Self blameshow  Current self-characterization