Findings on happiness in Crnic et al. (1984): study US 1981

Author(s)Crnic, K.A.; Greenberg, M.T.; Ragozin, A.S.; Robinson, N.M.
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
Collect period1981-1982 months int
 Data were collected when infants were 1, 4, 8, 12 and 18 months old. Ages represent corrected gestational age: premature birth/infant development not confounded with biological immaturity.
Survey nameNot available
SampleSampling not reported
Respondents N =105
Non ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Structured interview/questionnaire/laboratory observation
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: "When you take everything into consideration, your child, your adult life, etc, how would you describe your current life situation.....?' 1 things are very bad right now 2 3 4 5 things are very good (Response options not fully reported)
Error estimatesRetest reliability: after two weeks: r= +.82, after 8 months : r= +.61, after 18 months: r= +.51
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.97

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Community supportshow  Earlier support received
Demographic situationshow  Socio-demographic + life-events
Demographic situationshow  Summed effect of earlier conditions, also classified as above ↑
Demographic situationshow  Summed later-life conditions, also classified as above ↑
Educationshow  Level of school-education
Joint effectsshow  Socio-demographic + life-events + social ties
Joint effectsshow  Summed effect of earlier conditions, also classified as above ↑
Joint effectsshow  Summed later-life conditions, also classified as above ↑
Number of childrenshow  Attitudinal stability
Number of childrenshow  Number of children, also classified as above ↑
Past happinessshow  Birth sequala
Past happinessshow  Recent happiness (< 1 year ago), also classified as above ↑
Premature birthshow  Earlier characteristics of one's children
Premature birthshow  Handicap/health of one's children, also classified as above ↑
Receipt of public assistanceshow  Welfare
Social support from intimatesshow  Current social support received
Stressshow  Burden of earlier life-events