Findings on happiness in Bookwala & Schulz (1996): study US 1991

Author(s)Bookwala, J.; Schulz, R.
TitleSpousal Similarity in Subjective Well-Being: The Cardiovascular Health Study.
SourcePsychology and Aging, 1996, Vol. 11, 582 - 590
Public65+ aged couples, United States, 1991
Survey nameUnnamed study
 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Couples selected from a general population sample The sample of elderly married couples was drawn from the larger Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) population based sample of older adults.Couples (individuals who shared a household indicated that they were married and living with their spouse).
Respondents N =1040
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Participants completed a structured interview and the interviews were conducted separately with each spouse.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole? 6 delighted 5 4 3 2 1 terrible Labels of other response options not reported
Author's labelFeelings about life as a whole
Page in publication584-585
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 6On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.80

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Happiness of spouceM04ae01Happiness of spouse
Happiness of spouceH08ac05Happiness of spouse, also classified as above ↑
Total varianceS15ab03Socio-demographic + health
Total varianceS15ab19Socio-demographic + health + life events, also classified as above ↑
Total varianceS15ab31Socio-demographic + life appriasals + life events, also classified as above ↑
Total varianceS15ab04Socio-demographic + life-appraisals, also classified as above ↑
Total varianceS15ab05Socio-demographic + life-events, also classified as above ↑
Total varianceS15ab01Socio-demographic factors only, also classified as above ↑