Findings on happiness in Williams (2003): study US 1986

Author(s)Williams, K.
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
Last assesment1994
 T1: 1986, T2: 1989, T3: 1994. Analysis based on comparison between last wave and previous wave, that is a 3 or 4 years lag
Survey nameNot available
 3 waves of American's Changing Lives survey (House 1986)
SampleSelection from general population sample
 Oversampling of African Americans and older adults.
Respondents N =2348
 3617 in 1986, 2348 (65%) in 1989 and 1994.
Non Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
 43% dropout due to mortality (546), 723 due to non-response in follow-up
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Now please think about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with it? Are you.. 5 completely satisfied 4 very satisfied 3 somewhat satisfied 2 not very satisfied 1 not at all satisfied - don't know - no answer
Author's labelLife statisfaction
Page in publication474
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Change in marital statusM01ab02aRecent divorce/separation
Change in marital statusM01ab01Recent entering of marriage, also classified as above ↑
Change in marital statusM01ab01cRecent re-marriage, also classified as above ↑
Change in marital statusM01ab02bRecent widowhood, also classified as above ↑
Continuity in marital statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Continuity in marital statusM01abRecent change in marital status, also classified as above ↑
Male sexeG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital harmonyM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage
Marital stressM03ab06Tensions in relationship