Findings on happiness in Cantril (1965): study ZZ 1960

Publication
Author(s)Cantril, H.
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Investigation
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, 1960
 General population in : 5 Westernized nations (USA, WestGermany, Yugoslavia, Poland, Japan), 3 underdeveloped giants (Brazil, Nigeria, India), 2 countries in the Middle East (Israel, Egypt), 3 Caribbean nations (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Panama) and the Philippines.
 Surveys in nations 1959-1963
Survey nameCantril World Survey
SampleVaried Probability
WeightingY
 Representative samples, partly using random procedures: - Brazil : Probability samples of both urban and rural population; date: 1960-1961; N: 2168 (after weighting 2739); 1713 rural 1026 urban; 1242 males, 1479 females; age 18+, See CANTR 1965/3 - Cuba : Probability area sample; date: April-May, 1960; N: 992 (1490); urban population only: 487 Ss from Havana and 1003 Ss other; 833 males, 633 females; age 20+, See CANTR 1965/4 - Dominican Rep.: Probability samples of both the urban and rural publics; date: April, 1962; N: 814 (2442); 1884 rural, 558 urban; 1588 males, 854 females; age 21+, See CANTR 1965/5 - Egypt : Non-probability accidental sample, proportionally post- stratified by dwelling; overrepresentation of better edu- cated and urban segments of the population; date: fall, 1960; N: 499 (1237); 820 rural; 417 urban; 848 males; 363 females; age 15+, See CANTR 1965/6 - India : Probability sample, proportionally poststratified by dwel- ling; date: late summer, 1962; N; 2366 (5720); 4472 rural, 1248 urban; 5188 males, 532 females, See CANTR 1965/7 - Israel : Probability sample; date: November 1961 - June, 1962; N: 1170; 578 males, 592 females. A separate sample of mem- bers of 10 Kibbutzim was drawn; N: 300; 167 males; 133 fe- males, See CANTR 1965/8 + CANTR 1965/16 - Japan : Probability sample; date: fall, 1962; N: 972; 437 males, 533 females; age 21+, See CANTR 1965/9 - Nigeria : Probability sample, proportionally stratified by dwelling and region; date: September, 1962 - spring, 1963; N: 1200 (2876); 1054 rural, 822 urban; 580 west, 700 east, 1596 north; 2328 males, 552 females; age 21+ See CANTR 1965/10 - Panama : Probability sample, proportionally poststratified by dwel- ling and mortality; date: January - March, 1962; N: 642 (1351); 786 rural, 565 urban; 622 males, 698 females; age 21+ See CANTR 1965/11 - Philippines : Probability sample, proportionally poststratified by dwel- ling; date: spring, 1959; N: 500 (1388); 1036 rural, 164 semi-urban, 188 urban; 780 males, 608 females; age 21+ See CANTR 1965/12 - Poland : Probability samples of urban and rural populations; date: spring, 1962; N: 1464 (1950); 972 rural, 978 urban; 929 males, 1021 females; age 18+ See CANTR 1965/13 - USA : Probability sample: date: August, 1959; N: 1549 (2696); 2432 white, 264 non-white; 128 males, 1413 females; age 21+ See CANTR 1965/2 - West Germany : Probability area sample; date: September, 1957; N: 480, 219 males, 261 females, See CANTR 1965/14 - Yugoslavia : Probability sample; date: spring, 1962; N: 1523; 727 rural 83 semi-urban, 706 urban; 761 males, 762 females; age 21+ See CANTR 1965/15
Respondents N =18653
 N: 18,653 After weighting procedures, mostly for dwelling, the total number of card-units was 33,327
Non Response-
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 by native interviewer
General remarksSame data also reported in BORTN 1974.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time? [ 10 ] best possible life [ 9 ] [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] [ 0 ] worst possible life Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now. Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
ClassificationC-BW-c-sq-l-11-a
Author's labelHappiness
Remarks31% low (step 0-3), 42% medium (step 4-6), 20% high (step 7-10)
Error estimatesReliability between coders of around 95%
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Mean5.005.00
Standard deviation


Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ability to do thingsoneself to increase satisfactionshow  Inner locus of control
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Being a housewifeshow  Full-time home maker
Educational levelshow  Level of school-education
Fear of warshow  Attitudes to war
Futurityshow  Orientation on the future
Have no fears for the nationshow  Current attitudes to nation
Having no worries and fearsshow  Amount of worrying
Incomeshow  Current income level (unspecified)
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
National hopes and aspirationsshow  Worries about the nation
National worries andfearsshow  Worries about the nation
Non-laborshow  Current employment status
Occupationshow  Current occupation
Personal hopes and aspirationsshow  Object of life-goals
Personal worries andfearsshow  Specific worries
Positive evaluation of present national situationshow  Evaluation of current situation of nation
Report of fears con-cerning economic conditionsshow  Aspired income-increase
Report of fears con-cerning the familyshow  Concern about family
Report of fears concerning job or work situationshow  Concern about (un)employment
Report of fears concerning values and characteshow  Concern about character
Report of hopes con-cerning economic conditionsshow  Aspired income-increase
Report of hopes con-cerning the familyshow  Concern about family
Report of hopes concerning job or work situationshow  Concern about (un)employment
Report of national fears concerning economic situationshow  Political concern
Report of national fears concerning independent statusshow  Political concern
Report of national fears concerning international situatshow  Political concern
Report of national fears concerning political situationshow  Political concern
Report of national fears concerning social situationshow  Political concern
Report of national hopes concerning economic situationshow  Political concern
Report of national hopes concerning independent statusshow  Political concern
Report of national hopes concerning international situat.show  Political concern
Report of national hopes concerning political situationshow  Political concern
Report of national hopes concerning social situationshow  Political concern
Report of personal fears concerning in-ternational situat.show  Political concern
Report of personal fears concerning political situationshow  Political concern
Report of personal fears concerning social situationshow  Political concern
Report of personal hopes concerning in-ternational situatshow  Political concern
Report of personal hopes concerning political situationshow  Political concern
Report of personal hopes concerning social situationshow  Political concern
Socio-economic developmentshow  Modernity of nation
Urban dwellingshow  Rural vs urban dwelling
Wish to preserve national status quoshow  Current attitudes to nation