Findings on happiness in Diener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997

Publication
Author(s)Diener, E.; Seligman, M.E.P.
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
Investigation
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
 Undergraduate students of University of Illinois
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =222
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Daily report of mood and activities during 51 days; peer ratings.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textVarious self reports and informant rating A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester: a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS) B Selfreport on 24 questions: How much of each mood did you experience in the last month? BA LOVE a Affection b love c caring d fondness BB JOY a joy b happiness c contentment d pride BC FEAR a fear b worry c anxiety d nervous BD ANGER a anger b irritation c disgust d rage BE SHAME a shame b guilt c regret d embarrassment BF SADNESS a sadness b loneliness c unhappiness d depression Rated: 0 = not at all .6 extremely much Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4 C Rating of B by five informants D Selfreport of daily affect on B Summation: z-scores
ClassificationM-AO---mqr-*-0-a
Author's labelhappiness
Page in publication81
RemarksThe highest 10%, the middle 27% and the lowest 10% were selected. A check using three alternative indicators of wellbeing lead to the same groep assignment, one case excepted, which was removed. The alternative indicators were: 1) memory event recal balance, 2) trait self description and 3) suicidal thoughts Selelected in two stages. Stage 1: Four happiness measures were administrated - Satisfaction with Life scale - Global self-reported affect balance - Informant affect balance - Daily affect balance Scores were standardized and the z score for each individual were added. The highest and lowest 10% of standardized scores were selected on the basis of this distribution. Stage 2: Three groups were filtered with a discriminant function with three measures to determine whether these group members remained the same with three other measures: - Memory event recall balance - Trait self-description - Interview suicide measure 1 Ss from very happy was removed
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Mean
Standard deviation1.00


Full textSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt in the past month' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNESS Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-a
Author's labelGlobal self-reported affect balance
Page in publication82
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.80
Standard deviation0.50


Full textSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt today' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNESS Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-md-mqr-v-7-a
Author's labelInformant affect balance
Page in publication82
RemarksRated each day over 51 days
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.90
Standard deviation0.70


Full textRating by family and peers of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion Ss felt today' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNESS Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-g-rdv-v-7-a
Author's labelDaily affect balance
RemarksOn average five informants rated each participant. The score for each participant was calculated by subtracting the mean for negative adjectives from the mean of positive adjectives
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.60
Standard deviation0.40


Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Affect intensityshow  Intensity of affects
Agreeablenessshow  Agreeable
Conscientiousshow  Conscientious
Depressionshow  Depressive (f31-33)
Extraversionshow  Extraverted
Extremely happy or unhappyshow  O-further by A-AB
Family Conflictshow  Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Hypochondriasisshow  Current psycho-somatic complaints
Hypochondriasisshow  Hypochondric (f45.2), also classified as above ↑
Hypomaniashow  Hypomanic (f30)
Hysteriashow  Hysteric (f99)
Neuroticismshow  Neurotic
Opennessshow  Open
Paranoiashow  Paranoid (f20-22)
Psychastheniashow  Psychasthenic (f99)
Psychopathicshow  Scores on symptom inventories
Relationship rated by peersshow  Current intimate relationships
Relationships with close friendshow  Number of close friends
Romantic relationshipshow  Current intimate relationships
Schizophreniashow  Schizophrenic (f20)
Strong family relationshipshow  Family climate
Time spent aloneshow  Time spend alone
Time spent with family, friends, and romantic partnershow  Current intimate relationships
Time spent with family, friends, and romantic partnershow  Time spend socializing, also classified as above ↑