Findings on happiness in Wright & Staw (1999): study US 1994

Author(s)Wright, T.A.; Staw, B.M.
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
 Data were collected at 4 time periods: T1 (initial), T2 (year 3), T3 (year 4), T4 (year 4,5). Affective disposition was measured at T1 and T2. Positive and Negative mood at T2 and T3. Supervisory evaluations of composite and global work performance was rated at T2, T3 and T4. Years of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Included were employees who remained within the department and for who measures of affective state, affective disposition and prior rated performance were available as predictors of subsequent rated performance. The were representative of the department's population . 71,7 % were male and all had a four year college degree. Mean age 45,3. Mean job tenure 16,7 years.
Respondents N =81
Non Response35%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Work performance rated by departmental manager.
General remarksSimilar studies reported in WRIGH 1999/2, WRIGH 2002, WRIGH 2004/1, WRIGH 2004/2
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 8 questions: Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways? A On top of the world B Very lonely or remote from other people C Particularly excited or interested in something D Pleased about having accomplished something E Bored F Depressed or very unhappy G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair H Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why Reponse options: 0 never 1 sometimes 3 often Scoring: PA = A+C+D (range 0-9) NA = B+E+F+G+H (range 0-15) ABS = PA-NA (range 1-7) Name: Index of Psychological Wellbeing
Author's labelAffective disposition
Page in publication6
RemarksT1: N= 44 M =3,5 SD =1,3 T2: N= 45 M= 3,5 SD = 1,5
Error estimatesCronbach alpha: T1: 0.73 T2: 0.70
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.30

Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way today....? A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('today' version)
Author's labelpositive and negative mood
Page in publication8
RemarksAffect Balance: at T2 M= 1,2 at T3 M =1,6 Positive Affect subscale: at T2 M= 3,1 SD =0,8 at T3 M= 3,2 SD=0,7 Negative Affect subscale: at T2 M= 1,9 SD=0,9 at T3 M=1,6 SD=0,7
Error estimatesCronbach alpha: positive mood T2: 0.91 T3: 0.86 negative mood T2: 0.93 T3: 0.90
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Composite rated performanceW06aa02Change in work-performance
Composite rated performanceW06aa03Later work-performance, also classified as above ↑
Global rated performanceW06aa03Later work-performance
Goal emphasisW06aa03Later work-performance
Positive and Negative moodM15ab02Mood during the day of interview
Positive and Negative moodH04ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), also classified as above ↑
SupportW06aa03Later work-performance
Team buildingW06aa03Later work-performance
Work facilitationW06aa03Later work-performance