Findings on happiness in Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Author(s)Ryff, C.D.
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
 a: young adult (mean age=19.53, SD=1.57) b: middle aged adults (mean age=49.85, SD=9.35 c: older adults (mean age=74.96, SD=7.11)
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 The young adults were contacted through and educational institution, the middle and older adults through community and civic organizations
Respondents N =321
 a=133, b=108, c= 80 Women=191, Men=129
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksRelatively healthy, well-educated, finacially comfortable respondents
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelAffect Balance Scale
Page in publication1073
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Stage of life
Autonomyshow  Independent
Environmental masteryshow  Inner locus of control
Financeshow  Sufficiency of current income
Gendershow  Sex (male vs female)
Marital statusshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Personal growthshow  Self-actualization (need for)
Personal growthshow  Self-perceived maturity, also classified as above ↑
Positive relations with othersshow  Attitudes to intimates
Positive relations with othersshow  Current intimate relationships, also classified as above ↑
Positive relations with othersshow  Sociable, also classified as above ↑
Purpose in lifeshow  Clarity of life-goals
Purpose in lifeshow  Perceived usefullness of one's life, also classified as above ↑
Self-acceptanceshow  Current satisfaction with self
Self-acceptanceshow  Current self-evaluation, also classified as above ↑