Findings on happiness in Subramanian et al. (2003): study US 2000

Author(s)Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, I.; Kim, D.
TitleHealth and Happiness in US Communities: A Multivariate Multilevel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Epidemiology Community Health, 2005, Vol. 59, 664 - 669
Public18-85 aged, general public, United States, 2000-2001
Collect periodYear
Last assesment2001
 Year 2000 and early 2001
Survey nameNot available
 2000 Social Capital Benchmark Survey, Harvard University.
SampleSelection from general population sample
 34 subsamples of local communities, selected at the Annual meeting of US community foundations. Representative for the diversity of communities across the country (smaller and bigger towns, regions of the country etc.)
Respondents N =21572
 Each community sample consisted of 500-1500 interviews.
Non ResponseNot available
 Nonresponse ranged from 43% (Newaygo County, Michigan) to 70% (Denver, Colorado).
AssesmentInterview: telephone (CATI)
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question; In general, are you…? 4 very happy 3 happy 2 not very happy 1 not happy at all
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication5
Finding used in
nation ranks
Scores in1234

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
CommunityL13abCurrent local geographical conditions
Current ageA04abCurrent age (in years)
Education level: less than highschoolE01ab02Level of school-education
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Household incomeI01ab03Household income
Marital statusM02aa03Married vs divorced
Marital statusM02aa01Married vs never married, also classified as above ↑
Marital statusM02aa02Married vs widowed, also classified as above ↑
Poor health (self rating)R07ab01bHealth in region
Poor health (self rating)H14ab02Self-perceived health, also classified as above ↑
RaceE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA