Findings on happiness in Ritter et al. (1999): study US 1998

Author(s)Ritter, M.A.; Austrom, M. G.; Zhou, H.
TitleCurrent Concepts Review: Retirement from Orthopaedic Surgery.
SourceThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1999, Vol. 81, 414 - 418
PublicRetired orthopaedic surgeons, United States, 1998
 Ss. Members of American Acadamy of Orthopaedic surgery.Five are women. 9% were semiretired: of the 708 surgeons 643 were fully retired, 65 were semiretired. Average age: 72.9. Age range 50 - 85 yrs.
Survey nameUnnamed study
 Survey questionnaire of retired orhtopaedic surgeons
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Non members of the Academy were excluded from the sample
Respondents N =1293
 5 women were selected, 3 responded
Non Response45%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
  The Academy sent out the Questionnaires
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question: Taking everything into account about what has happened in ther last year and what you expect in the near future, how do you feel about your life in general? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 equally satisfied as dissatisfied 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible - no feelings at all - never thought about it
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication414
Remarks1+2+3: 4%, 4: 6%, 5: 24%, 6: 34%, 7: 32%.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Better health now than before retirementshow  Change in physical health
Better relationship with spouse since retirementshow  Change in satisfaction with marriage
Excellent health health at present timeshow  Self-perceived health
Increase in travel or vacation activity since retirementshow  Activities in retirement
Increase in travel or vacation activity since retirementshow  Change in leisure activity-level, also classified as above ↑
Personal or family reasons for retirement as opposed to healthshow  Conditions of retirement
Personal or family reasons for retirement as opposed to healthshow  Pre-retirement conditions, also classified as above ↑