Findings on happiness in Biswas-Diener & Diener (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2005

Author(s)Biswas-Diener, R.; Diener, E.
TitleThe Subjective-Well-Being of the Homeless, and Lessons for Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 185 - 205
PublicHomeless people, Calcutta (India), Fresno & Portland (USA), 200?
 Pavement dwellers in Calcutta (India), Pavement and shelter dwellers in Fresno, California (USA), Homeless residing in a self-governing tent camp in Portland, Oregon (USA)
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 USA: Respondents in Fresno were recruited at an agency providing free meals and other services for poor and homeless people. Female participants in Fresno were also recruited from a social service agency providing aid to poor and homeless women and their children. Underrepresentation of Hispanics. In Dignity Village participants were recruited on site. India: Respondents were recruited by word of mouth by a trained research assistant at the Dum Dum railway platform and from a footpath near the Marwari Hospital. Men are underrepresented because the interviewer was a woman.
Respondents N =186
 Calcutta N= 67, Dignity Village N= 41, Fresno N=78
Non Response19
 5 in Fresno (3 due to an inability to speak English fluently), 2 in Dignity Village, 12 in Calcutta.
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaires for literate, oral interviews for illiterate participants
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport of momentary mood on 6 questions: Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion? A affectionate B joyful C angry D sad E worried F guilty 1 never 2 slight amount (rare) 3 some of the time 4 about half the time 5 much of the time 6 almost always 7 always Computation: (A+B)/2 - (C+D+E+F)/4 Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
Author's labelPositve and negative affect
Page in publication196, 197
RemarksAffect Balance computed by WDH team from table III. Calcutta: -0.24, DV +0,67, Fresno +0,46
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
TemporaryN10ab02Comparison of specific social categories in nations
TemporaryH22abCurrent dwelling, also classified as above ↑