Findings on happiness in Callan (1986): study US California 1981

Author(s)Callan, V.J.
TitleSingle Women, Voluntary Childlessness and Perception about Life and Marriage.
SourceJournal of Biosocial Science, 1986, Vol. 18, 479 - 487
PublicIntentionally childless and intentionally parents, California, USA, 198?
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 This study included only subjects who stated that they and their spouses had made a permanent commitment to childlessness. The parents in the sample indicated that they had planned the number, timing, and spacing of their children, agreed with their spouses on this decision, intended to have no more children, and had all of their children still living at home.
Respondents N =76
 Childless: N = 30; Parents: N = 46
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 not reported, assumed
General remarksYear of data gathering not reported, assumed 1981
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: …satisfaction with life .. (full text not reported) 1 not at all satisfied 2 not very satisfied 3 fairly satisfied 4 very satisfied
RemarksOverall mean calculated by WDH staff
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Childless vs ParentsC03abCurrent parental status
Childless vs ParentsC03aa01Ever had children (vs not), also classified as above ↑