Findings on happiness in Zullig et al. (2006): study US 2003

Author(s)Zullig, K.J.; Horn, T.; Ward, R.M.
TitleThe Association between Perceived Spirituality, Religiosity, and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Self-Rated Health.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol.79, 255 - 274
Public18+aged, university students, USA, 2003
 Midwest university students; 91% white; aged 18-22; 66% women.
Collect period2
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability simple random sample
 1000 students were randomly selected from university e-mail database; 522 participated; 459 answered questions about life satisfaction.
Respondents N =459
Non Response48%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 By e-mail, anonymous
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as.. 1 terrible 2 unhappy 3 mostly dissatisfied 4 mixed ( equally satisfied and dissatisfied) 5 mostly satisfied 6 pleased 7 delighted Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
Author's labelOverall life-satisfaction
RemarksThe paper reports a mean of 4,80, based on a 0-6-scale. On scale 1-7 the mean is 5,80.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.101.75

Scores in1234567

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Religiosityshow  Self-definition as religious
Self-perceived healthshow  Self-perceived health
Spiritualityshow  Current religious beliefs