Findings on happiness in Costa et al. (1987a): study US 1971 /1

Author(s)Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.; Zonderman, A.B.
TitleLongitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55
Public25-74 aged, USA, samples in 1971-75 and 1981-84
Collect period4
Last assesment1975
 Study A: data gathered between April 1971 and Oktober 1975 Study B: data gathered between Januari 1981 and August 1984
Survey nameNot available
 National center for Health Statistics Survey (NHANES) Same study also reported in COSTA 1987/1 (longitudinal analysis of 1971 sample)
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Samples of 1-74 aged civilian population. Systematic oversampling of: women in childbearing age, elderly and poor 24+ aged selected from this sample.
Respondents N =11899
 1971-74 sample N = 6913, 1981-84 sample N = 4986
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 A booklet completed by participants with help from interviewers if required.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on 8 questions A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month? B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month? C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month? D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month? E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month? F How have you been feeling in general during the past month? G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month? H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month? Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E) Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
Author's labelGeneral well-being schedule
Page in publication50-521
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Period (time sequentional analysis)A04abCurrent age (in years)
Period (time sequentional analysis)G01aaSex (male vs female), also classified as above ↑
Period (time sequentional analysis)E03ab01aTrend in general public, also classified as above ↑