Findings on happiness in Wrzesniewski et al. (1997): study US Pennsylvania 1996

Author(s)Wrzesniewski, A.; McCauley, C.R.; Rozin, P.; Schwartz, B.
TitleJobs, Careers, and Callings: People's Relations to their Work.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 1997, Vol. 31, 21 - 33.
PublicUniversity employees, Pennsylvania, USA, 1996
Collect period1996
Survey nameUnnamed study
 Own survey: 'University of Pennsylvania work-life questionnaire'
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
 Respondents volunteered in participating in the survey
Respondents N =135
 61 respondents were not included in the analysis because they did not fill out the questionnaire correctly. - respondents were 76 (out of 130)employees of a major state university student health service, and 162 (out of 283) non-faculty employees of a small liberal arts college (total 238 of 413 employees) who volunteered to complete the questionnaire. Only respondents working at least 35 or more hours per week were retained, leaving a total of 196 respondents. - 79% female - mean age 42 (range 21-69) - income: <$25000/year 39%; $25.000-34.999 28%; $35.000-49.999 18%; $50.000-74.999 13%; $>75.000 3% - Occupational status: the scale ranges from 0-100, and respondents were divided into levels by increments of 10; therefore a respondent with an occupational status that scores 26 was assigned to the 3rd occupational level. Distribution: level 3: 3%; level 4: 19%; level 5: 12%; level6: 34%; level 7: 29%; level 8: 2%; level 9: 2%
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....? 7 completely satisfied 6 5 4 neutral 3 2 1 completely dissatisfied
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication25.27,29
RemarksMean computed by WDH-team.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.101.83

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Views on workshow  Current motivation to work
Views on workshow  Object of life-goals, also classified as above ↑
Views on workshow  Work values, also classified as above ↑