Findings on happiness in Mollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000

Author(s)Mollenkopf, H.; Kaspar, R.
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
 District of Jerichow (Saxon-Anhalt, East Germany) and Vogelsberg (Hesse, West Germany)
Survey nameMOBILATE
SampleProbability stratified sample
 - randomly chosen in villages with at most 5000 inhabitants - disproportionately stratified according to gender (almost equal shares of men and women) and age (55-74 and 75 years and older)
Respondents N =762
 West Germany: N=383; (Former communist) East Germany: N=379
Non Response41,6%
 39% in West Germany; 44% in East Germany
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksDetails about measurement taken from Mollenkopf, H.; Flaschenträger, P.; Erhaltung von Mobilität im Alter, Verlag W. Kohhammer, Stuttgart; Berlin; Köln, 2001, Schriftenreihe des Bundesministeriums für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, Band 197. ISBN:3-17-07144-5
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past year? A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past year' version)
Author's labelEmotional well-being
Page in publication122, 124
RemarksAffect Balance computed by us, substracting Negative Affect Score from Positive Affect Score
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -40 - 40On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.25

Full textSelfreport on single question; What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9" 10 completely satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 completely dissatisfied
Author's labelSatisfaction with life in general
Page in publication122
Remarks11-point Likert scale also used in the German Welfare Survey and by the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation2.10

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Activities of daily living (ADL)show  Degree of restriction
Ageshow  Age difference among elderly
Available servicesshow  Amenities in vinicity
Basic household featuresshow  Household appliances
Car use as drivershow  Amount of travel
Car use as drivershow  Modes of travel, also classified as above ↑
Car use as passengershow  Kind of social support received
Car use as passengershow  Posibility to travel, also classified as above ↑
General life satisfaction in German rural regionsshow  Socio-demographic + environment + health + life style
Home ownershipshow  House owned or rented
Household typeshow  Current household-composition
Neighbourhood featuresshow  Local environmental quality
Network varietyshow  Current intimate relationships
Outdoor leisure activitiesshow  Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
PANASshow  O-SL by A-AB
Region in Germanyshow  Region in Germany
Satisfaction with financesshow  Satisfaction with income\finances
Satisfaction with healthshow  Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with housingshow  Satisfaction with housing
Satisfaction with leisure time activitiesshow  Attitudes to own activity pattern
Satisfaction with leisure time activitiesshow  Leisure aspirations, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with living areashow  Satisfaction with amenities in vinicity
Satisfaction with mobilityshow  Attitudes to one's life-style
Satisfaction with mobilityshow  Satisfaction with possibility to travel, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with public transportshow  Satisfaction with local transport
Satisfaction with public transportshow  Satisfaction with travel mode, also classified as above ↑
Sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Visu-motoric coordination (DST)show  Restrictions in moving