Findings on happiness in Zhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994

Author(s)Zhang, X.; Hwang, S.S.
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
Collect period11
 November 1994 to December 2004
Survey nameNot available
 Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), Phase 2: 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Respondents N =8439
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general at present? 1 not at all satisfied 2 less than satisfied 3 both yes and no 4 rather satisfied 5 fully satisfied
Author's labelLife dissatisfaction
Page in publication337-360
RemarksPresented as dissatisfaction with life in report. Means reversed by us 1992/94 M= 6.27 10/95 M= 6.24 10/96 M= 6.13 11/98 M= 6.05 10/00 M= 6.37
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.10

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Deathshow  Longevity (assessed in follow up)
Educationshow  Later educational level
Incomeshow  Later level of income
Life-satisfaction previous yearshow  Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Self-rated healthshow  Later physical health
working statusshow  Later (un)employment