Findings on happiness in Huff-Fox (1977): study US 1970

Author(s)Huff-Fox, J.
TitleEffects of Retirement and Former Worklife on Womens' Adaptation to Old Age.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 196 - 202
DOIdoi: 10.1093/geronj/32.2.196
PublicOlder white middle-class women, USA, 1970
Survey nameNot available
 Second Duke Longitudinal Study of Aging . See also PALMO 1972, 1977 en 1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Names were drawn from membership of major health insurance company (supplemented with 65+ patients of Medical Center).
Respondents N =212
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Face-to-face interview, questionnaire and medical examinations
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 9 questions: We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week. How often last week did you feel .....? A On the top of the world B Very lonely or remote from other people C Particularly excited or interested in something D Depressed or very unhappy E Pleased about having accomplished something F Bored G Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why Answer options: 0 not at all 1 once 2 several times 3 often Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -15 tot +12 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Page in publication198
RemarksMean is own calculation
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -15 - 12On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Attendance non-religious meetingsshow  Attendance to meetings
Attendance non-religious meetingsshow  Current contacts, also classified as above ↑
Contact with friendsshow  Current contacts with friends
Contact with neighborsshow  Social contacts in vinicity
Contact with relativesshow  Contacts with relatives
Educationshow  Level of school-education
General contactsshow  Current contacts
Incomeshow  Household income
Marital statusshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Number of friendsshow  Current friendship network
Number of friendsshow  Number of close friends, also classified as above ↑
Number of neighbors one knowsshow  Social contacts in vinicity
Number of relativesshow  Number of relatives
Retirementshow  Current employment status
Retirementshow  Current status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Retirementshow  Full-time home maker, also classified as above ↑
Self rated healthshow  Global health rating