Findings on happiness in Huff-Fox (1977): study US 1970

Author(s)Huff-Fox, J.
TitleEffects of Retirement and Former Worklife on Womens' Adaptation to Old Age.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 196 - 202
DOIdoi: 10.1093/geronj/32.2.196
PublicOlder white middle-class women, USA, 1970
Survey nameNot available
 Second Duke Longitudinal Study of Aging . See also PALMO 1972, 1977 en 1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Names were drawn from membership of major health insurance company (supplemented with 65+ patients of Medical Center).
Respondents N =212
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Face-to-face interview, questionnaire and medical examinations
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 9 questions: We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week. How often last week did you feel .....? A On the top of the world B Very lonely or remote from other people C Particularly excited or interested in something D Depressed or very unhappy E Pleased about having accomplished something F Bored G Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why Answer options: 0 not at all 1 once 2 several times 3 often Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -15 tot +12 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Page in publication198
RemarksMean is own calculation
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -15 - 12On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Attendance non-religious meetingsS07ab02Attendance to meetings
Attendance non-religious meetingsS06abCurrent contacts, also classified as above ↑
Contact with friendsF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Contact with neighborsL17ab01cSocial contacts in vinicity
Contact with relativesF03ab02Contacts with relatives
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
General contactsS06abCurrent contacts
IncomeI01ab03Household income
Marital statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Number of friendsF06adCurrent friendship network
Number of friendsF06ab01Number of close friends, also classified as above ↑
Number of neighbors one knowsL17ab01cSocial contacts in vinicity
Number of relativesF03ab01Number of relatives
RetirementE02abCurrent employment status
RetirementR14abCurrent status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
RetirementE02ab01Full-time home maker, also classified as above ↑
Self rated healthH14ab02aGlobal health rating