Findings on happiness in Walters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983

Author(s)Walters, C.M.; McKenry, P.C.
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
Collect period1
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Working and nonworking mothers from intact family structures with at least one child involved in a 4-H program in the state of Ohio. The mothers were randomly selected in 1982 from 4-H membership lists in 24 randomly selected counties. Because this sample contained a disproportionate share of rural as compared with urban subjects, 4-H membership lists in an additional seven urban counties were purposively surveyed. Only rural (farm and nonfarm) and urban mothers who were employed outside the home were used
Respondents N =237
Non Response29%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Mailed questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: ".......describe your present life......." (Full question not reported) 7 rewarding 6 5 4 3 2 1 disappointing
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication1069
RemarksRural M = 5,36 SD = 1,26; Urban M = 5,37 SD = 1,14
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Children's supportshow  Amount of current support received
Children's supportshow  Perceived conflict between work and home life, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportshow  Sources of current support, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportshow  Support received from children, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportshow  Working mother, also classified as above ↑
Expectation of workingshow  Aspirations for employment
Friendship with women who are also employed outside the homeshow  Current characteristics of friends
Greater importance attached to employmentshow  Attitudes to own (un)employment
higher levels of education and trainingshow  Level of school-education
Job family conflictshow  Perceived conflict between work and home life
Job family conflictshow  Role conflict, also classified as above ↑
Neighbors supportshow  Current social support received
Neighbors supportshow  Social contacts in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
non traditional sex role attitudesshow  Gender-role attitudes
Presence of female friends at the place of employmentshow  Current characteristics of friends
Reason for workingshow  Reasons for working
Role model of working mothershow  Working mother
Rural vs Urbanshow  Rural vs urban dwelling