Findings on happiness in Walters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983

Author(s)Walters, C.M.; McKenry, P.C.
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
Collect period1
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Working and nonworking mothers from intact family structures with at least one child involved in a 4-H program in the state of Ohio. The mothers were randomly selected in 1982 from 4-H membership lists in 24 randomly selected counties. Because this sample contained a disproportionate share of rural as compared with urban subjects, 4-H membership lists in an additional seven urban counties were purposively surveyed. Only rural (farm and nonfarm) and urban mothers who were employed outside the home were used
Respondents N =237
Non Response29%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Mailed questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: ".......describe your present life......." (Full question not reported) 7 rewarding 6 5 4 3 2 1 disappointing
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication1069
RemarksRural M = 5,36 SD = 1,26; Urban M = 5,37 SD = 1,14
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Children's supportS10ab01Amount of current support received
Children's supportW05agPerceived conflict between work and home life, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportS10ab02Sources of current support, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportC05ab03Support received from children, also classified as above ↑
Children's supportF01ajWorking mother, also classified as above ↑
Expectation of workingE02ag05Aspirations for employment
Friendship with women who are also employed outside the homeF06aeCurrent characteristics of friends
Greater importance attached to employmentE02agAttitudes to own (un)employment
higher levels of education and trainingE01ab02Level of school-education
Job family conflictW05agPerceived conflict between work and home life
Job family conflictR15ab02bRole conflict, also classified as above ↑
Neighbors supportS10abCurrent social support received
Neighbors supportL17ab01cSocial contacts in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
non traditional sex role attitudesG01ab01Gender-role attitudes
Presence of female friends at the place of employmentF06aeCurrent characteristics of friends
Reason for workingW05ac01Reasons for working
Role model of working motherF01ajWorking mother
Rural vs UrbanL13ab02bRural vs urban dwelling