Findings on happiness in Gonzalez (2008): study ES 2005

Author(s)Gonzalez, V.
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
 Workers, retirees and housewives
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 According to their age (from 50 to 80) and to their work status (we wanted the same N in the three groups (workers: women = 50, men = 50; retirees: women = 50 and men = 50; housewives = 50), and belonging to the same socio-economical status
Respondents N =250
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question Do you feel happy? 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 slightly disagree 4 neither agree or disagree 5 slightly agree 6 agree 7 strongly agree
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.312.18

Full textSelfreport on 12 questions: During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..? A So sad nothing could cheer you up B Nervous C Restless or fidgety D Hopeless E That everything was an effort F Worthless G Cheerful H In good spirits I Extremely happy J Calm and peaceful K Satisfied L Full of life Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F) Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale (MIDI-affect)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -24 - 24On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation8.89

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04ab03Age difference among elderly
Employment (males)E02abCurrent employment status
Employment (males)R14abCurrent status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Employment status (females)E02abCurrent employment status
Employment status (females)R14abCurrent status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Employment status (females)E02ab01Full-time home maker, also classified as above ↑
Explained varianceS15ac01Life-appraisals + personality
Frequency of leisure activitiesL03ac01Leisure activity level
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Kind of leisure activitiesL03ac02Specific leisure activities
Number of leisure activitiesL03ac01Leisure activity level
Satisfaction with leisure activityL03ad03bSatisfaction with leisure activities
Self esteemS02ad02Evaluation of self-as-a-whole