Findings on happiness in Gonzalez (2008): study ES 2005

Author(s)Gonzalez, V.
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
 Workers, retirees and housewives
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 According to their age (from 50 to 80) and to their work status (we wanted the same N in the three groups (workers: women = 50, men = 50; retirees: women = 50 and men = 50; housewives = 50), and belonging to the same socio-economical status
Respondents N =250
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question Do you feel happy? 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 slightly disagree 4 neither agree or disagree 5 slightly agree 6 agree 7 strongly agree
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.312.18

Full textSelfreport on 12 questions: During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..? A So sad nothing could cheer you up B Nervous C Restless or fidgety D Hopeless E That everything was an effort F Worthless G Cheerful H In good spirits I Extremely happy J Calm and peaceful K Satisfied L Full of life 1 = none of the time (never) 2 = a little of the time 3 = some of the time 4 = most of the time 5 = all of the time ( always) Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F) Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale (MIDI-affect)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -24 - 24On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation8.89

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Age difference among elderly
Employment (males)show  Current employment status
Employment (males)show  Current status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Employment status (females)show  Current employment status
Employment status (females)show  Current status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Employment status (females)show  Full-time home maker, also classified as above ↑
Explained varianceshow  Life-appraisals + personality
Frequency of leisure activitiesshow  Leisure activity level
Gendershow  Sex (male vs female)
Kind of leisure activitiesshow  Specific leisure activities
Number of leisure activitiesshow  Leisure activity level
Optimismshow  Optimistic
Satisfaction with leisure activityshow  Satisfaction with leisure activities
Self esteemshow  Evaluation of self-as-a-whole