Findings on happiness in Baker et al. (2005): study US 1986

Author(s)Baker, L.A.; Burr, J.A.; Cahalin, L.P.; Gerst, K.
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
Last assesment1989
 T1: 1986, T2: 1989
Survey nameNot available
 American Changing Lives Survey (ACL)
SampleProbability stratified sample
 65+ aged selected from a probability sample of 25+ aged residents of the USA
Respondents N =1279
Non ResponseNot available
 T1-T2 dropout greater among males, elderly, lower educated, people in poor health, depressed and unhappy
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....? 7 completely satisfied 6 5 4 neutral 3 2 1 completely dissatisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication440
RemarksDistribution in % on structured range 1-5 Satisfied 60.39% Somewhat satisfied 13.13% Neutral 18,98% Somewhat dissatisfied 4,22% Dissatisfied 3.28% % very satisfied= T1: 71%, T2: 73%
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.50

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication440-453
RemarksAverage in report on reversed scale (M = 1,2)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.641.66

Scores in123

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Blackshow  Ethnic status in the USA
CESD2 (depressive symptoms index)show  Depressive (f31-33)
Earlier life satisfactionshow  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Educationshow  Earlier educational level
Health condtionsshow  Earlier physical health
Life satisfactionshow  O-HL by O-SL
Maleshow  Sex (male vs female)
Marriedshow  Earlier marital states
Religious participationshow  Earlier religion
Size of support networkshow  Earlier support received
Social activityshow  Earlier total social participation