Findings on happiness in Greenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995

Author(s)Greenfield, E.A.; Marks, N.F.
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
Survey nameMIDUS
SampleSelection from general population sample
 Random digit dialing with an oversampling of older respondents and men. The sample was weighed correcting for selection probabilities and nonresponse to match the composition of the US population on age, sex, race, and education.
Respondents N =3032
Non Response39%
 Of the 70% respndents who completed the telephone interview 87% completed the mail-back questionnaire.
AssesmentInterview: telephone (CATI)
 After the telephone interview 87% of the respondents completed a self-administered mailback questionnaire.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 12 questions: During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..? A So sad nothing could cheer you up B Nervous C Restless or fidgety D Hopeless E That everything was an effort F Worthless G Cheerful H In good spirits I Extremely happy J Calm and peaceful K Satisfied L Full of life Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F) Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale (MIDI-affect)
Author's labelaffect
Page in publication251
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -24 - 24On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Full textSelfreport on single question Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days? 0 worst possible life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 best possible life
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication250, 251
RemarksRecoded: 0-6 = 1, 7 = 2, 8 =3, 9 = 4, 10 = 5 On this range 1-5: M = 2,86, SD = 1,23
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
BlackE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA
EducationE01ab01Years schooling
EmployedE02abCurrent employment status
FemaleG01aaSex (male vs female)
Has a childC03aa01Ever had children (vs not)
IncomeI01ab03Household income
MarriedM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Religious identityR12af02Self-definition as religious
Religious participationR12ad02Participation in church
Self rated healthH14ab02aGlobal health rating
Summed determinantsS15abSummed effects of current individual conditions (micro level)