Findings on happiness in Diener et al. (1993): study US 1971

Author(s)Diener, E.; Diener, M.; Sandvik, E.; Seidlitz, L.
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
Public25-74 aged general public, United States, 1971-1984
Last assesment1984
 T1: April 1971 - October 1 T2: January 1971 - May 1984
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleSelection from general population sample
Respondents N =4942
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on 8 questions A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month? B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month? C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month? D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month? E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month? F How have you been feeling in general during the past month? G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month? H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month? Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E) Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
Author's labelwell-being
Page in publication202
Error estimatesCronbach Alpha at T1: .84; T2: .78 T1-T2 correlation: r = +.47 (0.01)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
HappinessH04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago)
IncomeI01aa02aChange in income level
IncomeE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA, also classified as above ↑
IncomeI01ab03Household income , also classified as above ↑
IncomeE01ab02Level of school-education, also classified as above ↑