Findings on happiness in Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998

Author(s)Csikszentmihalyi, M.; Hunter, J.
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th grade pupils from 33 elementary and secondary schools from 12 communities across the country.
 Year of datagathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =828
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentExperience sampling
 minimal 15 observations in one week
General remarksThis papers reports findings on both happiness of the moment (called 'state' happiness) and average happiness across all moment beeped (called 'trait' happiness). This excerpts reports only the findings on average happiness.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day. " .. mood .." Full lead question not reported 7 happy 6 5 4 3 2 1 sad
Author's labelhappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Age difference among young people
Being aloneshow  Current contacts
Being aloneshow  Current contacts with friends, also classified as above ↑
Being aloneshow  Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Companyshow  Current contacts
Companyshow  Current contacts with friends, also classified as above ↑
Companyshow  Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Ethnicityshow  Ethnic status in the USA
Feeling activeshow  Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Feeling excitedshow  Feeling excited
Feeling good about selfshow  Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Feeling proudshow  Feeling proud
Feeling sociableshow  Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Feeling strongshow  Current typical moods
Fun reading/writingshow  Reading
Gendershow  Sex (male vs female)
Grade level in schoolshow  Current stage in school-career
School-related activityshow  Involvement in school-work
School-related activityshow  Studying, also classified as above ↑
Social class of communityshow  'Objective' socio-economic status
Social class of communityshow  Socio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young), also classified as above ↑
Social class of communityshow  Socio-economic status of vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Socializing with friendsshow  Current contacts
Socializing with friendsshow  Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Socializing with friendsshow  Visits to friends, also classified as above ↑