Findings on happiness in Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998

Author(s)Csikszentmihalyi, M.; Hunter, J.
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th grade pupils from 33 elementary and secondary schools from 12 communities across the country.
 Year of datagathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =828
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentExperience sampling
 minimal 15 observations in one week
General remarksThis papers reports findings on both happiness of the moment (called 'state' happiness) and average happiness across all moment beeped (called 'trait' happiness). This excerpts reports only the findings on average happiness.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day. " .. mood .." Full lead question not reported 7 happy 6 5 4 3 2 1 sad
Author's labelhappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04ab02Age difference among young people
Being aloneS06abCurrent contacts
Being aloneF06acCurrent contacts with friends, also classified as above ↑
Being aloneA02ac10Socializing, also classified as above ↑
CompanyS06abCurrent contacts
CompanyF06acCurrent contacts with friends, also classified as above ↑
CompanyA02ac10Socializing, also classified as above ↑
EthnicityE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA
Feeling activeM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Feeling excitedM15ac06aFeeling excited
Feeling good about selfM15ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Feeling proudM15ac12aFeeling proud
Feeling sociableM15ac05cFeeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Feeling strongM15acCurrent typical moods
Fun reading/writingL03ac02hReading
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Grade level in schoolS01aa03Current stage in school-career
School-related activityS01ac03Involvement in school-work
School-related activityA02ac11Studying, also classified as above ↑
Social class of communityS09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status
Social class of communityF01ahSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young), also classified as above ↑
Social class of communityL17ab04Socio-economic status of vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Socializing with friendsS06abCurrent contacts
Socializing with friendsA02ac10Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Socializing with friendsF06ac06Visits to friends, also classified as above ↑