Findings on happiness in Layard et al. (2009): study DE 1984

Author(s)Layard, R.; Mayraz, G.; Nickell, S.J.
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
Survey nameDE-SOEP combined waves
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Respondents N =56240
 81000 person/year observations
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksLast assessment not reported
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied." 10 totally satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 totally unsatisfied
Page in publication7
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Happinessshow  Trend happiness in age groups
Real household incomeshow  Change in income level
Real household incomeshow  Earlier level of income, also classified as above ↑
Relative household incomeshow  Relative to similar people