Findings on happiness in Knabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992

Author(s)Knabe, A.; Rätzel, S.
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
Last assesment2005
 T1: 1992, T13: 2005
Survey nameNot available
 German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), waves 1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =152411
Non Responsenot reported
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied." 10 totally satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 totally unsatisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication8
Remarks8.9 % reports life satisfaction lower than 5, 78.3 % reports 6 and higher
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Long-term unemployedshow  Unemployed involuntary
Permanent incomeshow  Earlier level of income
Transitory incomeshow  Household income
Unemployedshow  Trend happiness in employment categories
Unemployedshow  Unemployed involuntary, also classified as above ↑
Unemployment rateshow  Trend happiness in Germany
Unemployment rateshow  Unemployment in nation, also classified as above ↑