Findings on happiness in Hershfield et al. (2013): study US San Francisco, California 1994 /1

Author(s)Hershfield, H.E.; Scheibe, S.; Sims, T.
TitleWhen Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood.
SourceSocial Psychology and Personal Science, 2013, Vol. 4, 54 - 61
DOIDOI: 10.1177/1948550612444616
PublicAdults, San Francisco Bay Area, USA, followed 10 years 1994-2005.
 M age 55. 54% women, 31% African American and 69 % European American. 59% were white collar workers. Ethinicty, gender, and socio-economic status distributed evenly acrosse age.
Collect period1994
Last collect period2005
 3 waves at 5-year intervals: Wave 1: 1994-1995 Wave 2: 1998-2000 Wave 3: 2004-2005
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleProbability simple random sample
 Between waves additional participants were recruited to replace those lost to attrition. Participants from one wave to the next wave were more likely to be European American and to have more years of education. Total analysis included 312 unique participants, ranging inn age from 18-94. 54 participated in all 3 waves, 87 in 2 waves, and 171 in 1 wave. There were no differences in the 3 waves between age, gender, socioeconomic status or health.
Respondents N =184
 T1: n=184 1994-1995 T2: n=193 1998-2000 T3: n=178 2004-2005
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Participants first completed questionnaires about their health, happiness and cognitive ability. After that participants were given an electronic pager with instructions how to complete the emotion responsse questionnaires, each time they were paged. In the following week participants were paged 5 times a day. Paging times were random selected, but not more than once within a 20 minute interval. At the end of the day participants returned the 5 completed response sets by mail. After that week participants returned to the laboratory for a follow-up interview, after which they were debriefed and paid for their participation.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 5 times a day Degree to which one feel emotion at the moment (Full text of lead phrase not reported) A happiness B joy C contentment D excitement E pride F accomplishment G interest H amusement I anger J sadness K fear L disgust M guilt N embarrassment O shame P anxiety Q irritation R frustration S boredom Rated 1 not at all 2 3 4 5 6 7 extremely Computation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)/8 -(I+J+K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R+S)/11
Author's labelPositive and negative emotions
Page in publication56-57
RemarksAffect Balance computed by the WDH-team from PA= 3.60 and NA= 1.64.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.79