Findings on happiness in Kross et al. (2013): study US 2008

Author(s)Kross, E.; Demiralp, E.; Verduyn, P.
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Ann Arbor, Michigan, followed 14 days, USA, 2013
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =82
 53 females, 60,5% european americans, 29,4% asian, 6,2% african american, 4,9% other.
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: computer assisted (CAPI)
 Survey via mobile phone.
General remarksYear assumed by WDH team.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day How do you feel right now? 0 very positive : : : : 100 very negative
Author's labelAffect
Page in publicationPage 3
RemarksScale reversed to range 0 (negative) to 100 (positive) by WDH team.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 100On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation25.882.59

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Direct contactshow  Current contacts
Facebook useshow  Earlier internet behaviour
Facebook useshow  Later internet behaviour, also classified as above ↑
Facebook useshow  Social media, also classified as above ↑
Facebook useshow  Social media, also classified as above ↑
Facebook useshow  Time on internet, also classified as above ↑
Lonelinessshow  Coping with conflicts, loneliness
Pre/Post life satisfactionshow  O-SL by A-AOL
Pre/Post life satisfactionshow  Recent happiness (< 1 year ago), also classified as above ↑
Worryshow  Current worries