Findings on happiness in Hills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973 /1

Author(s)Hills, T.; Proto, E.; Sgroi, D.
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
Public18+ aged, general public, 6 EU nations, 1973-2000
Collect period1973
Last collect period2000
 UK, Italy and France 1973-2000, W.Germany 1973-1990, Spain 1985-2000
Survey nameEU-Eurobarometer 1973-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =190
 Respondents: UK: N=104.068, Germany: N=102.975, Italy: N=103.789,France: N=102.692, Spain: N=75259. Number of waveyear/nation combinations=190
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead? 4 very satisfied 3 fairly satisfied 2 not very satisfied 1 not at all satisfied - Don't know
Author's labelSubjective well-being
Page in publication7,14
RemarksEurobarometer 1973-2000, in in 1 analysis extended to 2009.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.18

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Positive/negative valence of words used in books in nationsshow  Hedonic values in nation
Positive/negative valence of words used in books in nationsshow  Hedonism in nation, also classified as above ↑