Findings on happiness in Nabi et al. (2008): study GB London 1985

Author(s)Nabi, H.; De Vogli, R.; Kivimaki, M.
TitlePositive and Negative Affect and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Whitehall 11 Prospective Cohort Study.
SourceBritish Medical Journal, 2008, Vol. 337, 32 - 36
PublicEmployees of a firm, age 35-55, London, United Kingdom, 1985-1990
 Civil servants in 20 London based departments
Collect period1985-88
Last assesment1990
Last collect period1989-90
Survey nameNot available
 Whitehall II study, London, United Kingdom
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 All civil servants of 20 London based departments were asked to participate. 73 % agreed.
Respondents N =10308
 Male: 6895, female: 3413
Non Response27%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Clinical information and a self-administered questionnaire. Phase 1: 1985-88 Phase 2: 1989-90 Phase 7: 2003-04
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 11 questions: "During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" A angry B bored C could not get going D depressed E lonely F too busy G uneasy H excited I on top of the world J pleased K proud Answer options and scoring: - yes = 1 - no = 0 Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -7 to +5 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelPositive and negative affect
Page in publication2
Remarks75% of the participants filled in ABS-questions at phase 1. Where phase 1 data were missing, PA- and NA-scores were used at phase 2. Replacement percentage was 15,0% for Positive Affect And 14,3 % for Negative Affect.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -7 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation4.19

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Alcoholshow  Use of alcohol
Blood cholesterolshow  Blood-pressure
Blood cholesterolshow  Symptoms of bad health, also classified as above ↑
Body mass indexshow  Body Mass Index (BMI)
Daily fruit and vegetablesshow  Healthy eating
Daily fruit and vegetablesshow  What one eats, also classified as above ↑
Diabetesshow  Diabetes (e10-14)
Employment gradeshow  Current socio-economic status
Ethnicityshow  Ethnic status in the UK
Exerciseshow  Current sporting
Exerciseshow  Sporting, also classified as above ↑
Gendershow  Sex (male vs female)
Hazard of coronory heart diseaseshow  Diseases of circulatory system (i00-99)
Hypertensionshow  Hypertensive diseases (i10-15)
Job strainshow  Strain at work (physical)
Smoking statusshow  Use of tobacco