Findings on happiness in Feller et al. (2013): study DE 1994

Author(s)Feller, S.; Kaaks, R.; Teucher, B.
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
Last assesment1998
Survey nameEU-EPIC (Europ. Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) 1994-1998
 EPIC is a multi-centre prospective cohort study in 10 European nations
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
 From the original European sample of 10 nations 2 German cohorts were selected: Potsdam and Heidelberg
Respondents N =48976
 53.088 participants (22.833 men and 30.255 women) were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Participants were excluded if they had missing information on life satisfaction(n=47, 0.1%), covariates(n=1082, 2%), diagnosis(n=15, 0.03%), death(n=3, 0.005%), or did not participate in the follow-up(n=1.583, 3%), resulting in 50.358 participants. Prior to analysis, endpoint specific prevalent cases were excluded, resulting in a final sample size of 48.411 respondents for cancer, 48.075 respondents for type 2 diabetes, and 48.976 respondents for cardiovascular stroke and myocardibal infacrtion.
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Baseline instruments to collect several aspects on diet and life-style included self-administered questionnaires, PC-guided interviews and physical examinations
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are.. 4 very satisfied 3 mostly satisfied 2 mostly dissatisfied 1 very dissatisfied - don't know
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication2
RemarksMean computed by WDH-team. In the analysis rather and very unsatisfied respondents were merged to unsatisfied, since only 1.4% of the respondents reported to be 'very unsatisfied'. 'Don't know' and 'Not specified' answers were treated as missing and deleted from the analysis (n=47, 0.1%)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.642.15

Scores in1234

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Alcohol consumption (g/day)show  Use of alcohol
Body Mass Index (BMI)show  Body Mass Index (BMI)
Consumption of red meat (g/day)show  Healthy eating
Consumption of red meat (g/day)show  What one eats, also classified as above ↑
Consumption of vegetables and fruits (g/day)show  Healthy eating
Consumption of vegetables and fruits (g/day)show  What one eats, also classified as above ↑
Consumption of whole grain bread (g/day)show  Healthy eating
Consumption of whole grain bread (g/day)show  What one eats, also classified as above ↑
Family statusshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Highest school levelshow  Level of school-education
Later cancershow  Later illness
Later cancershow  Neoplasms (cancer) (c00-d48), also classified as above ↑
Later diabetes type 2show  Diabetes (e10-14)
Later diabetes type 2show  Later illness, also classified as above ↑
Later myocardial infarctionshow  Ischaemic heart diseases (i20-25)
Later myocardial infarctionshow  Later illness, also classified as above ↑
Later stroke (cardio-vascular)show  Later illness
Later stroke (cardio-vascular)show  Stroke (i64), also classified as above ↑
Occupationshow  Current employment status
Occupationshow  Current status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Occupationshow  Full-time vs part-time, also classified as above ↑
Physical activityshow  Active involvement in sports
Prevalent cancershow  Neoplasms (cancer) (c00-d48)
Prevalent hypertensionshow  Hypertensive diseases (i10-15)
Prevalent myocardial infarctionshow  Diseases of circulatory system (i00-99)
Prevalent strokeshow  Stroke (i64)
Prevalent type2 diabetes mellitusshow  Diabetes (e10-14)
Smokingshow  Earlier use of stimulants
Smokingshow  Use of tobacco, also classified as above ↑
Total energy intakeshow  How much one eats