Findings on happiness in Hopfensitz & Mantilla (2018): study ZZ 1970

Author(s)Hopfensitz, A.; Mantilla, C.
TitleEmotional Expressions by Sports Teams: An Analysis of World Cup Soccer Player Portraits.
SourceJournal of Economic Psychology, 2018, online
PublicSoccer teams playing in World Cup 1970-2014
 Portraits of soccer players of teams playing in the FIFA World Cup
Last assesment2014
Survey nameNot a survey study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Portraits of individual soccer players of teams participating in World cup tournaments from 1970 through 2014, found in FIFA World Cup Albums
Respondents N =304
 4896 portraits of players in 304 teams
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Happiness in facial expression of players measured using Facereader 6 with artificial neural networks technology. Team performance measured using socces statistics The dependent variables in this study were the number of goals scored and the number of goals conceded., goal difference and World Cup ranking.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textRating of happiness in facial expression from photos, using an automatic face recognition device 0 no sign of happiness in facial expression 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 clear happiness in facial expression Device: FaceReader 6, (Bijlstra & Dotsch 2014) Originally scored on range 0-1, Transformed to 0-10 by WDH team
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication8, 10, 27, 32
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AngryM15ac01Feeling angry (vs friendly)
nationN10abCurrent nation of residence
TeamW04abCurrent work-conditions
Team performance in soccer leagueW06abCurrent work-performance
Team performance in soccer leagueS12ab05Performance in sports, also classified as above ↑
YearE03ab01boTrend happiness in top sporters