Findings on happiness in Froh et al. (2009a): study US 2006

Author(s)Froh, J.J.; Kashdan, T.B.; Ozimkowski, K.M.
TitleWho Benefits the Most from a Gratitude Intervention in Children and Adolescents? Examining Positive Affect as a Moderator.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, Vol. 4, 408 - 422
Public8-19 aged participants in a gratitude intervention and controls, USA, 200?
 Students of a parochial school, grade 3, 8 and 12
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Students were matched by grade and then randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group
Respondents N =89
 intervention group n = 44, control group n = 45
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksYear of data collection not reported, assumed 2006
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 30 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past few weeks? A Interested B Sad C Frightened D Alert E Excited F Ashamed G Upset H Happy I Strong J Nervous K Guilty L Energetic M Scared N Calm O Miserable P Jittery Q Cheerful R Active S Proud T Afraid U Joyful V Lonely W Mad X Fearless Y Disgusted Z Delighted AA Blue AB Daring AC Gloomy AD Lively Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): B, C, F, G, J, K, M, O, P, T, V, W, Y, AA, AC Positive affect score (PAS):A, D, E, H, I, L, N, Q, R, S, U, X, Z, AB, AD Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS. Adapted for children by Laurent et al. (Version PANAS-C)
Author's labelPositive and negative affect
Page in publication414
RemarksBaseline scores. Affect Balance (positive affect minus negative affect) computed by WHD team
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -60 - 60On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Gratitude interventionshow  Change in thankfulness
Gratitude interventionshow  Exercise, also classified as above ↑
Gratitude interventionshow  Gratitude training, also classified as above ↑