Findings on happiness in Sheldon et al. (2002): study US 2000

Author(s)Sheldon, K.M.; Kasser, T.; Smith, K.
TitlePersonal Goals and Psychological Growth: Testing an Intervention to Enhance Goal Lattainment and Personality Integration.
SourceJournal of Personality, 2002, Vol. 70, 5 - 31
PublicPsychology students participating in a growth training, USA, 200?
 University of Missouri,
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability self-selected
 Students of a psychology course were approached to participate for extra course credit. After baseline assessment participants were randomly assigned to the goal intervention group or the control group
Respondents N =90
 female 63%
Non ResponseNot available
 drop out 13%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksYear of data gathering not reported, assumed 2000
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions: Lead item not reported A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H excited I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Rated: 1: not at all 2 3 4 5 6 7 frequently Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson's PANAS last week version
Author's labelAffect balance
Page in publication13
RemarksBaseline score. Original scale ranges from -60 to 60. The authors used the average scores for negative affect and positive affect, which makes the range -3 to 3
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -60 - 60On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.52

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Goal-training interventionshow  Actual changes in happiness
Goal-training interventionshow  Goal setting training, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  Individual counsel, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  Mono sort, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  Multiple treatment moments, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  On invitation, no pay, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  School, also classified as above ↑
Goal-training interventionshow  Support group with professional, also classified as above ↑
Midsemester Progressshow  Perceived realization of life-goal set
Organismic Integrationshow  Authenticity of goals
Organismic Integrationshow  Motivation behind life goals, also classified as above ↑
Systemic Integrationshow  Organization of life-goals (life-goal set)