Findings on happiness in Emmons & McCullough (2003): study US 1998

Publication
Author(s)Emmons, R.A.; McCullough, M.E.
TitleCounting Blessings versus Burdens: an Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, Vol. 84, 377 - 389
DOIDOI:10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377
Investigation
PublicStudents, participating in a gratitude excercise, USA, 1998
 166 undergraduate students, 125 women, 41 men.
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Students participated to fulfill the experiental learning component of the course.
Respondents N =166
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentDiary
General remarksStudy 2 of 3 studies; p. 381. Year of study not reported. Assumend 1998
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 30 questions repeated 14 days To what extent did you feel today,, A interested B distressed C excited D alert E irritable F sad G stressed H ashamed I happy J grateful K tired L upset O strong P nervous Q guilty R joyful S determined T thankful U calm V attentive X forgiving Y hostile Z energetic Aa hopeful Ab enthusiastic Ac active Ad afraid Ae,proud Af appreciative Ag angry Rated 1 not at all 2 3 4 5 very much Computation: (A+C+D+I+G+J+O+R+S+T+U+V+X+Z+Aa+Ab+Ac+AF)/17 - (B+E+F+G+H_+K+L+P+Q+Y+Ad+AG)/13
ClassificationA-AB-md-mqr-v-5-a
Author's labelMood
Page in publication379
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Actual changes in happiness
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Change in thankfulness, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Count blessings/curses, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Exercise, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Gratitude training, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Mandatory, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Mono sort, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  Multiple treatment moments, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.show  School, also classified as above ↑