Findings on happiness in Emmons & McCullough (2003): study US 2003

Author(s)Emmons, R.A.; McCullough, M.E.
TitleCounting Blessings versus Burdens: an Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, Vol. 84, 377 - 389
PublicMedical patients in Gratitude exercise, USA 2003.
 65 patients wirh neuro-muscular diseases, 44 women, 21 men;aged 22-77, mean 49 years. 68% married, 42% with college or postgraduate degrees.
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability self-selected
 Participants were recruited through a mailing list compiled by the University of California. They received US $20 after sending in all 21 forms
Respondents N =65
Non ResponseNot available
 21 daily experience rating forms, to be completed at the end of the day
General remarksYear of study not reported .Assumed 1998 Study 3 of 3 studies, page 384.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 30 questions repeated 9 weeks To what extent did you feel last week,, A interested B distressed C excited D alert E irritable F sad G stressed H ashamed I happy J grateful K tired L upset O strong P nervous Q guilty R joyful S determined T thankful U calm V attentive X forgiving Y hostile Z energetic Aa hopeful Ab enthusiastic Ac active Ad afraid Ae,proud Af appreciative Ag angry Rated 1 not at all 2 3 4 5 very much Computation: (A+C+D+I+G+J+O+R+S+T+U+V+X+Z+Aa+Ab+Ac+AF)/17 - (B+E+F+G+H_+K+L+P+Q+Y+Ad+AG)/13
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelf report on single question: Taking everything into account about what has happened in ther last year and what you expect in the near future, how do you feel about your life in general? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 equally satisfied as dissatisfied 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible - no feelings at all - never thought about it
Author's labelGlobal appraisal of life as a whole
Page in publication380
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textClinical rating by six staff psychologists who had studied the subjects intensively. Subjects were ranked for "Happiness"
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Happiness training: Gratitude  Change in thankfulness
Happiness training: Gratitude  Gratitude training, also classified as above ↑
Happiness training: Gratitude  On invitation, payed in money or study credit, also classified as above ↑