Findings on happiness in Nelson et al. (2014): study US 2009

Author(s)Nelson, S. K.; Fuller, T.; Lyubomirsky, S.
TitleBeyond Self-Protection: Self-Affirmation Benefits Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2014, 1 - 14
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0146167214533389
PublicStudents participanting in a well-being training and controls, USA 200?
 Psychology students
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 students were recruited from the psychology department's participant pool in exchange for partial course credit and a US$ 5,- payment
Respondents N =62
 Self-affirmation: N = 33; Controls: N = 29
Non ResponseNot available
 Drop out 3/65 = 5%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: web
General remarksYear of study not reported. Assumend 2009
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on 20 items During the past week, how often did you did you feel: a. Angry/irritated/annoyed b. Sad/downhearted/unhappy c. Scared/fearful/afraid d. Disgust/distaste/revulsion e. Contemptuous/scornful/disdainful f. Embarrassed/self-conscious/blushing g. Repentant/guilty/blameworthy h. Ashamed/humilated/disgraced i. Grateful/appreciative/thankful j. Interested/alert/curious k. Love/closeness/trust l. Amused/fun-loving/silly m. Glad/happy/joyful n. Hopeful/optimistic/encouraged o. Sexual/desiring/flirtatious p. Proud/confident/self-assured q. Content/serene/peaceful r. Awe/wonder/amazement Each scored 0 = never 1 2 3 4 = most of the time Negative Affect = reversed scores (a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h)/8 Positive Affect = (i+j+k+l+m+n+o+p+q+r)/10 Affect Balance = (NA + PA)/2
Author's labelhedonic well-neing
Page in publication5
RemarksT1 happiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
self-affirmation trainingshow  Actual changes in happiness
self-affirmation trainingshow  Exercise, also classified as above ↑
self-affirmation trainingshow  On invitation, payed in money or study credit, also classified as above ↑
self-affirmation trainingshow  Practice one's values, also classified as above ↑
self-affirmation trainingshow  School, also classified as above ↑
self-affirmation trainingshow  VALUES: LIVING UP TO, also classified as above ↑