Findings on happiness in Proctor et al. (2011a): study GB 2009

Author(s)Proctor, C.L.; Tsukayama, E.; Wood, A.M.
TitleStrengths Gym: The Impact of a Character Strengths-based Intervention on the Life Satisfaction and Well-being of Adolescents.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 377 - 388
DOIDoi: 10.1080/17439760.2011.594079
PublicAdolescents, participants in a strengt training and controls, UK, 2009
 Years 8 and 9 secundary school
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Two secondary schools agreed to participate. In Cheshire the school assigned 4 year 8 and 4 year 9 classes to the experimental group and 3 year 8 classes and 2 year 9 classes to the comparison group. In Chanelislands, four year 8 classes were assigned to the experimental group and 3 year 9 classes to the comparison group.
Respondents N =319
 experimental group n = 218, comparison group n = 101
Non ResponseNot available
 drop out 30 %
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 completed in class
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. Indicate to what extend you felt this way in the last week. A nervous B distressed C afraid D edgy E grouchy F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S emotionally strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS (adapted last week version for children)
Author's labelPositive affects and negative affects
Page in publication381
RemarksAffect Balance at baseline, both groups. Computed by WDH team
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -40 - 40On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Character strengths-based interventionshow  Actual changes in happiness
Character strengths-based interventionshow  Empowerment, also classified as above ↑
Character strengths-based interventionshow  Exercise, also classified as above ↑
Character strengths-based interventionshow  Mandatory, also classified as above ↑
Character strengths-based interventionshow  School, also classified as above ↑