Findings on happiness in Iwasaki & Smale (1998): study CA 1981

Author(s)Iwasaki, Y.; Smale, B.J.
TitleLongitudinal Analyses of the Relationships among Life Transitions, Chronic Health Problems, Leisure, and Psychological Well?being
SourceLeisure Sciences, 1998, Vol. 20, 25 - 52
PublicAged 23-96, Canada, 1981-1988
 Members of selected households
Last assesment1988
Survey nameNot available
 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the 1988 Campbell's Survey on Well-Being in Canada
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
 All members of each selected household over the age of 7 years were included in the surveys. Only respondents who participated in both surveys were included.
Respondents N =2744
 Women:1.480; men:1.264. Mean age 44.5 ( range 23-96)
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentNot available
 Assessment not reported
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? ) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: 1 never 2 sometimesd 3 often Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -20 to +20 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Page in publication28,29
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Change employment statusshow  Change from/to full-time homemaker
Change employment statusshow  Change in employment, also classified as above ↑
Change employment statusshow  Change in having work, also classified as above ↑
Change employment statusshow  Change in retirement status, also classified as above ↑
Change employment statusshow  Falling unemployed, also classified as above ↑
Change employment statusshow  Getting (re)employed, also classified as above ↑
Change marital statusshow  Recent change in marital status
Prevalence of illnessshow  Physical health in nation