Findings on happiness in Constantinople (1965): study US 1965

Author(s)Constantinople, A.P.
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Collect period3
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample of undergraduate students recruited from classes of students from 10 departments of the University of Rochester. 513 males : 150 freshmen, 126 sophomores, 133 juniors, 104 seniors. 439 females: 124 freshmen, 120 sophomores, 98 juniors, 115 seniors.
Respondents N =952
Non Response30% (take home questionnaire).
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaires completed in c lass and at home
General remarksSame study also reported in CONST 1967, ORTE 1967, 1972. Data also reported in Constantinople, A: 'Perceived instrumentality of the college as a measure of attitudes towards college'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967 vol.5 p.196-201
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy. 8 Elated and in high spirits. 7 Feeling very good and cheerful. 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK". 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so. 4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue". 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue". 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful". 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Author's labelHappiness.
Error estimatesReliability: Retest-reliability: In pilot study (N = 152): r=+.85 between two administrations of the scale occurring two weeks apart. Validity: Congruent validity: In pilot study (N=152) correlations of the instrument with the Nowlis (1965) MACL surgency plus Elation factors administered 4 times were +.30 for males and +.48 for females. In the same pilot study correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale were +.02 (ns) for males and +.20 (ns) for females.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Academic status (discrepancy betweenaptitude and  School-success
Academic status_Ashow  School-success
Academic status_Bshow  Verbal ability
Academic status_Cshow  Verbal ability
Attitude toward collegeshow  Perceived usefulness of schooling
Companionship vs being isolatedshow  Feeling close (vs remote)
Energy vs fatigueshow  Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Fullness vs emptiness of lifeshow  Feeling full (vs empty)
Harmony vs angershow  Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Impulse expression vs self-restraintshow  Feeling free from inner restraints
Love and sexshow  Love-feelings
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Personal freedom vs external constraintshow  Feeling free from external restraints
Personal moral judgmentshow  Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Present workshow  Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Psycho-social developmentshow  Current stage of development
Receptivity to the worldshow  Feeling receptive
Satisfaction with universityshow  Satisfaction with school-facilities
Self-confidenceshow  Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Sociability vs withdrawalshow  Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Social respect vs social contemptshow  Feeling respectable (vs rejected)
Stage of studyshow  Current stage in school-career
Thought processesshow  Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Tranquility vs anxietyshow  Feeling tranquil (vs restless)