Findings on happiness in Gavian (2011): study US 2010

Author(s)Gavian, M.
TitleThe Effects of Relaxation and Gratitude Interventions on Stress Outcomes
SourcePHD dissertation, 2011, School of the University of Minnesota, Minesota, USA
PublicStudent participants in a psychological training, USA, 2010
Collect periodSpring
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability self-selected
 Students were recruited through their courses and on an online bulletin board. Reward = extra study credit
Respondents N =247
 Original sample n = 271.
Non ResponseNot available
 Dropouts n = 24. Analyses on n = 247
AssesmentQuestionnaire: web
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now: A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson's PANAS ('moment' version)
Author's labelPositive affect and negative affect
Page in publication28 and 30
RemarksAffect Balance computed by WDH-team, subtracting NA from PA
Error estimatesCronach's alpha Positive affect: 0.90 - 0.94 Negative affect: 0.84 - 0.86
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -40 - 40On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Gratitude and Relaxation Interventionsshow  Gratitude training
Gratitude and Relaxation Interventionsshow  Happiness training, also classified as above ↑
Gratitude and Relaxation Interventionsshow  Online intervention, also classified as above ↑