Findings on happiness in Li et al. (2001): study US 1996

Author(s)Li, F.; Duncan, S.C.; Duncan, T.E.; McAuley, E.
TitleEnhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals Through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis
SourceStructural Equation Modeling, 2001,Vol. 8, 53-83
DOIDOI: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0801_4
PublicLow active elderly participants in an exercise training and controls, USA, 199?
 mean age 73.2
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability self-selected
 Recruitment through local newspaper advertisements and fliers at senior centers seeking volunteers to participate in a longitudinal study. Particioants were randomly assigned to traenment of control group
Respondents N =95
 Included in analyses n = 72 40 Experimental Tai Chi 32 Control (waiting list)
Non ResponseNot available
 Drop out during course: 25% in experimental group and 29% in control group
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 All participants completed measures during an initial group orientation meeting (T1). Participants from the experimental group com pleted these measures a second (Month 3: T2) and third (Month 6: T3) time either at the end of a practice class or at home, whereas participants in the control group completed their second and third assessments by mail.
General remarksYear not reported. Assumend 1996
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past week?: A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): (A to K)/10 Positive affect score (PAS): (L to T)/10 Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past week' version)
Author's labelPositive and Negative affect
Page in publication57
Error estimatesCronbachs alpha PA: 0.88-0.90-0.89 Cronbachs alpha NA 0.85-0.86-0.86
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -4 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
24 week TaiChi programH16ad02aActivation
24 week TaiChi programS12aa02Change involvement in sports, also classified as above ↑
24 week TaiChi programH16ae05dVoluntary, unsolicited, also classified as above ↑