Findings on happiness in Demir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007

Author(s)Demir, M.; Weitekamp, L.A.
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
 Subjects drawn from a psychology students pool
Respondents N =423
 Some subjects had no "best friend" and had to be dismissed, resulting N = 376
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average? A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 very much Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)
Author's labelPositive and Negative Affect
Page in publication191
RemarksMean: computed PA - NA = 3.82 - 2.04 in this case on a scale from -4 to +4
Error estimatesPA ? = 0.82, NA ? = 0.84
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -4 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Full textSelfreport on 25 questions A 20-item PANAS To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life? Aa nervous Ab distressed Ac afraid Ad jittery Ae irritable Af upset Ag scared Ah exiled Ai ashamed Aj guilty Ak hostile Al active Am determined An inspired Ao enthusiastic Ap alert Aq attentive Ar proud As strong At interested B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener) Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal Bb The conditions of my life are excellent Bc I am satisfied with my life Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing Answer options: 1 not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 very much Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)
Author's labelhappiness
Page in publication193
RemarksAggregate happiness score by standardizing the satisfaction with life, positve and negateive affect scores and subtracting the standardized negative affect scores from the sum of standardizedsatisfaction with life and positve affect scores
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation2.30

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
explained varianceS15ab45Life-appraisals + personality + social ties
Friendship conflictF06afConflicts with friends
Friendship qualityF06ah04Satisfaction with friends
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Life satisfactionH07aa04fO-SL by M-AO
Negative AffectM15acCurrent typical moods
Negative AffectH13ab02bScores on symptom inventories, also classified as above ↑
Number of friendsF06ab01Number of close friends
Positive affectH13adCurrent positive mental health
Positive affectM15acCurrent typical moods, also classified as above ↑