Findings on happiness in Sheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001

Author(s)Sheldon, K.M.; Hoon, T.H.
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Students of an introductory psychology course
Respondents N =533
Non Response6%
 32 participants dropped due to incomplete information
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 !! USA: web-based, Singapore: paper-an-pencil
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 25 questions: A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding. a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing Answers rated: 7 strongly agree 6 agree 5 slightly agree 4 neither agree nor disagree 3 slightly disagree 2 disagree 1 strongly disagree Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life: a nervous b distressed c afraid d jittery e irritable f upset g scared h exiled i ashamed j guilty k hostile l active m determined n inspired o enthusiastic p alert q attentive r proud s strong t interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS Computation: A+B
Author's labelSWB
Page in publication573, 574
Error estimates?=.89
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 25 - 149On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.50

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Agreeablenessshow  Sociable
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Coherence (sense of)
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Current motivation, also classified as above ↑
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Genuine, also classified as above ↑
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Independent, also classified as above ↑
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Inner locus of control, also classified as above ↑
Autonomy need satisfactionshow  Intrinsically motivated, also classified as above ↑
autonomy supportshow  Current social support received
competence need satisfactionshow  Perceived realization of life-goals
competence need satisfactionshow  Self-confidant, also classified as above ↑
competence need satisfactionshow  Self-perceived ability, also classified as above ↑
Conscienciousnessshow  Conscientious
cultural membershipshow  Current nation of residence
Extraversionshow  Extraverted
Gendershow  Sex (male vs female)
goal-progressshow  Successful (vs failure)
Inter-level consistencyshow  Consistent
Inter-level consistencyshow  Consonance of values, also classified as above ↑
Inter-level consistencyshow  Personality integration, also classified as above ↑
Neuroticismshow  Emotional
Opennessshow  Open
possible selvesshow  Real-ideal congruence
relatedness need satisfactionshow  Perceived availability of social support
relatedness need satisfactionshow  Perceived quality of intimate ties, also classified as above ↑
self-concordanceshow  Intrinsic motivation
self-esteemshow  Self-confidant
self-esteemshow  SELF-IMAGE, also classified as above ↑
Social supportshow  Current social support received
summed determinantsshow  Socio-demographic + life-appraisals + personality