Findings on happiness in Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2

Author(s)Sheldon, K.M.; Elliot, A.J.
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
 psychology students
 Year of data gathedring not reported T1: at the beginning of the semester; T2-T5 + T7-T10: 8 sessions, approximately every 10 days; T11: 3 months after T1
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Students who took part in a semster long study for an extra course credit
Respondents N =73
 21 men, 52 women
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 T1, T6, T11: take-home pakets of questionnaires T2-T5, T7-T10: in-class questionnaires
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 25 questions A Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS) B Selfreport on mood on 20 questions How much of each mood did you experience in the last month? a nervous b distressed c afraid d jittery e irritable f upset g scared h exiled i ashamed j guilty k hostile l active m determined n inspired o enthusiastic p alert q attentive r proud s strong t interested Answered: 1 not at all 7 very frequently (Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS) Summation: First computation of z-scores of A (life-satisfaction), Ba-k (negative affect) and Bl-t (positive affect). Next zA + zBl-t -zBa-k Answer options: a 1 very slightly or not at all b 2 a little c 3 moderately d 4 quite a bit e 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Self-concordanceshow  Authenticity of earlier goals
Self-concordanceshow  Authenticity of goals, also classified as above ↑
Self-concordanceshow  Current motivation, also classified as above ↑
Self-concordanceshow  Motivation career, also classified as above ↑
Semester attainmentshow  Perceived realization of life-goals
Semester effortshow  Current motivation
Semester effortshow  Involvement in life-goals, also classified as above ↑
Semester need satisfactionshow  Current self-characterization