Findings on happiness in Morgan et al. (1919): study US 1917

Author(s)Morgan, E.; Mull, H.K.; Washburn, M.F.
TitleAn Attempt to Test Moods or Temperaments of Cheerfulness and Depression by Directed Recall of Emotionally Toned Experiences.
SourceAmerican Journal of Psychology, 1919, Vol. 30, 302 - 304
PublicFemale students, college USA, 191?
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample using attendants of a psychology course.
Respondents N =97
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Open interview during five successive days, using a verbal projective technique
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textPeer rating on the basis of two questions: A. "Is S inclined to be ... most of the time?" b optimistic and cheerful a pessimistic and depressed B. "Is she ... in mood?" a steady b fluctuating Ss were classified as: 5 steadily optimistic 4 variable tending to optimism 3 indifferent or fluctuating 2 variable tending to pessimism 1 steadily pessimistic.
Author's labelOptimism.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Pleasant  Positive reacting