Findings on happiness in Block & Kremen (1996): study US 1990

Author(s)Block, J.; Kremen, A.M.
TitleIQ and Ego-Resiliency: Conceptual and Empirical Connections and Separateness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996, Vol. 70, 349 - 361
Public18-aged, followed 5 years; Berkeley, USA, 19??-19??.
 Participants in Longitudinal Study of Cognitive and Ego Development; heterogenous as to social class and parents'educational level.
 T1: 19??; T2:19??
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =95
Non Response11%
 At age 18, 106 participants were assessed; at age 23, 104 participants. Usable data were available for 95 participants.
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 at 18 years interviewed bij 4 examiners and 2 interviewers; at 23 years interviewed by a different set of 3 examiners and 3 interviewers.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textClinical rating of cheerfulness. Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 2 or 3 independent judges of cheerfulness as personality descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most characteristic of the subject. Rating options: scale rating from 1 to 9 (scale options not reported)
Author's labelIs cheerful
Page in publication354-6
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
ego- resilienceH13adCurrent positive mental health