Findings on happiness in Freeman et al. (1986): study US 1979

Author(s)Freeman, M.; Csikszentmihalyi, M.; Larson, R.
TitleAdolescence and its Recollections: Toward an Interpretive Model of Development.
SourceMerrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 32, 267 - 185
PublicAdolescents, USA followed 2 years, 1979-1981
Last assesment1981
 T1 1979 and T2 1981
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Random sample of pupils of a high school outside of Chicago stratified by age and gender.
Respondents N =27
 Ages ranges from 15 to 18 at T2; 14 girls and 13 boys; 15 lived in upper middle class and 12 in lower middle-class.
Non Response0
AssesmentExperience sampling
 Each respondent filled out self-report forms in response to signals occurring once every 2 hours (randomly generated) from 7:30 in the morning to 10:30 on weekday evenings and until 1:30 a.m. on Friday and Saturday for the duration of 1 week at T1 and T2.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report of momentary affect, repeated every 2 hours during two weeks Lead question not reported A Happy vs Sad B Friendly vs Angry C Cheerful vs Irritable D Sociable vs Lonely Rated on 7 step numerical scale (semantic differential)
Author's labelAffect
Page in publication174
RemarksRandom beeps from 7:30 in the morning to 10:30 on weekday evenings and until 1:30 a.m. on Friday and Saturday. Average on range 1-7 computed by WDH team from reported values on range 1-28: 19,29 at T1 and 18,90 at T2.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Changes in immediate experience from T1 to  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)