Findings on happiness in Toussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004

Author(s)Toussaint, L.L.; Friedman, P.H.
TitleForgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654
PublicPsychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
 Most patients were seeking help for distress and quality of life problems. Age 20-58
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Stratified by gender and age.
Respondents N =72
Non Response0
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Fillled out as standard battery at intake
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How high or low is your level of wellbeing? 0 extremely low, utterly depressed, completely down 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 extremely high, feeling extatic joyous, fantastic Adapted Fordyce Happiness Scale
Author's labelFordyce happiness scale
Page in publication642
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: "During the past week, did you ever feel.....?" A So restless that you could not sit long in a chair B Proud, because someone had complimented you C Very lonely or remote from people? D Pleased about having accomplished something E Bored F On top of the world? G Depressed H That things were going your way? I Upset because someone criticized you? J Could not do anything, simply because you could not start? Answer options and scoring: - yes = 1 - no = 0 Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on B,D F,H Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A,C,E,G,I,J Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range -6 to +4 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
Author's labelBradburn affect balance scale
Page in publication642
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AffectH07ab02bA-AOL by A-AB
Forgiveness of othersP05bcForgiving
Forgiveness of selfP05bcForgiving
Forgiveness of situationsP05bcForgiving
Friedman Affect ScaleH07ab02dA-AB by A-AB
Friedman Affect ScaleH07ab02bA-AOL by A-AB, also classified as above ↑
Friedman Belief ScaleS02abCurrent self-characterization
Satisfaction with Life ScaleL04ahHappiness inventories involving unacceptable items