Findings on happiness in Berger (2009): study DE 1994

Author(s)Berger, E.M.
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
 Mothers of working age (20 to 65 years) who are neither in education nor retired and who have at least one child younger than 14 years.
Survey nameDE-SOEP 1994
 German Socio-economic Panel 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =5706
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied." 10 totally satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 totally unsatisfied
Author's labelgeneral life satisfaction
Page in publication5
RemarksDistribution estimated from Fig 1. Ask for the real figures.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.771.77

Scores in012345678910

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Age of the youngest childC04ab01Age of children
Employment StatusE02abCurrent employment status
Employment Status with Out of labor force split up.E02aa02afOut of workforce
Have a child in the coming yearC03aa02bBirth of children
Have a child in the coming yearC02abCurrent want for children, also classified as above ↑
Highest educational degree degreeE01ab02Level of school-education
Living in East GermanyR01ab10Region in Germany
Migration backgroundE04ab03fEthnic status in Germany
Number of childrenC03ab01Number of children
Partner status statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Person in need of care in the householdH20ac01aDependent persons in household
Person in need of care in the householdH20ac01bHandicapped persons in household, also classified as above ↑
Residual Household IncomeI01ab03Household income
Self rated healthH14ab02Self-perceived health
Self-employedE02ae03Self employed
Size of municipality where the household livesL13ab02Community size
Size of municipality where the household livesL13ab02bRural vs urban dwelling, also classified as above ↑